It is divided into four main groupings: strepsirrhines, tarsiers, monkeys of the New World (parvorder Platyrrhini), and monkeys and apes of the Old World. Caviomorphs, the first rodents to reach the continent, are believed to have washed ashore after rafting across the Atlantic from Africa over 30 million years ago. The weight of even-toed ungulates is borne about equally by the third and fourth toes, rather than mostly or entirely by the third as in perissodactyls. Their much larger relatives, the pampatheres and glyptodonts, once lived in North and South America but became extinct following the appearance of humans. Endangered species found in South Africa: ADDO brings all available knowledge together of Africa's 770 known species of Odonata. Despite the long legs and neck, it has a small body. They are usually large to very large, and have relatively simple stomachs and a large middle toe. Do let us know if you spot any on the site. The newcomers out-competed and drove to extinction many mammals that had evolved during South America's long period of isolation, as well as some species from other classes (e.g., terror birds). At least six families of sparassodonts lived in South America prior to the interchange, dominating the niches for large mammalian carnivores. The Giant Eland Antelope. Two mammals have become extinct: the blue antelope and the quagga. The monito del monte of Chile and Argentina is the only extant member of its family and the only surviving member of an ancient order, Microbiotheria. Here are some of the animals native to South Africa. Of the species, 9 are extinct, 29 are critically endangered, 64 are endangered, 111 are vulnerable, 64 are near threatened, and 255 are data deficient. The South African Mammal CAMP workshop was held in Johannesburg and during the course of the workshop, participants evaluated and compared the data submitted for each species in working groups, based on taxonomic groupings. In South America, shrews are only found in the north (Colombia, Venezuela, Ecuador and Peru), a legacy of their relatively recent immigration to the continent by way of Central America (where shrew species are considerably more diverse). A strange-looking creature with a humped body, a long snout, and a thick tail, aardvarks … Two of the four subspecies of black rhinos found in South Africa are the South-central and South-western species. South Africa is home to over 80% of the world’s rhino population. The bulls (male) are larger than the cows (female) with the males having large manes that run along their throat. South America's 20 genera of nonhuman primates compares with 6 in Central America, 15 in Madagascar, 23 in Africa and 19 in Asia. Reviewed in the United Kingdom on January 12, 2013. But of the eight whale species found in South African waters (including the dramatic black-and-white killer whale), the most frequently seen … The endemic mammal species here include Cape Grysbok, the Cape Elephant Shrew, the Cape Horseshoe Bat, the Spectacled African Dormouse, and the Cape Mole-rat while other endemic species include the Riverine Rabbit and three types of golden mole: Chrysospalax, Cryptochloris, and Neamblysomus. It feeds on fruits, leaves, and flowers. South America's rodent fauna today is largely an outgrowth of two spectacularly fortunate ancient "sweepstakes" dispersal events, each of which was followed by explosive diversification. See the caterpillar identification help page.. [8] More recently, ancestral sigmodontine rodents[9] apparently island-hopped from Central America 5 million or more years ago,[10][11][12] prior to the formation of the Panamanian land bridge. Southern Africa has a very rich avifauna with many endemic species. The country is also home to some of the lesser known animals like the tsessebe and suni. Known only to survive in captivity or as a naturalized population well outside its historic range. Note: This list is inevitably incomplete, since new species are continually being recognized via discovery or reclassification. South Africa: Drom: 011 27 72 118 4800 Sune: 011 27 79 873 5154. It has a blackish stripe that extends from the chin to the lower part of the neck. During the early Cenozoic, South America's only land connection was to Antarctica, so it was effectively cut off from most of the world; as the fragments of Gondwana continued to separate, this connection was lost, leaving South America an island continent. Sciurids are absent from South America's southern cone, while castorimorphs are only present in northwest South America (Colombia, Venezuela and Ecuador). They evolved about 50 million years ago, and their closest living relatives are elephants. Cheetahs belong to the cat family and are found mainly in East, North, and Southern Africa. An adult antelope stands at 3.9 feet at the shoulder while the body length varies from 75 to 94 inches. Wildlife in South Africa is abundant, with almost 300 mammal species.. This page was last edited on 30 August 2020, at 06:49. Anthropogenic climate change and the damage to its ecosystems resulting from the rapid recent growth of the human population pose a further threat to South America's biodiversity. Impressive in stature and size, they can grow up to 11 feet and weigh 3.5-6.5 tons. The order Pilosa is confined to the Americas and contains the tree sloths and anteaters (which include the tamanduas). The adult tsessebe is 150-230 cm long. The high species diversity is due to the many biomes that are present in this southern region of Africa. South Africa is home to approximately 175 endemic bird species, as well as hundreds more species. It appears to be more closely related to Australian marsupials than to other Neotropic marsupials; this is a reflection of the South American origin of all Australasian marsupials.[7]. Its procyonid diversity is somewhat less than that of Central America, the center of the family's recent evolution. Moles are not found in the Americas south of northern Mexico. It is the fastest antelope in Africa and can attain a speed of up to 90 km/h. The cheetah is the fastest land animal and can attain a speed of 70 mph. These two groups now comprise 36% and 60%, respectively, of all South American rodent species. 5.0 out of 5 stars Best mammal guide to South Africa. Therefore, all endangered species of South Africa may not be listed here. The puff adder relies on camouflage for protection. (The exception is the pygmy three-toed sloth, endemic to an island off Panama.) In Groundbreaking Find, Three Kinds of Early Humans Unearthed Living Together in South Africa The different hominid species, possibly including … Since these mammals are nocturnal, they sleep inside burrows they dig and feed on roots, foliage, and other vegetable type material. They are the largest members of the feline family and mainly inhabit the woodlands, savannah, and grasslands across Africa. They are small to medium-sized marsupials, about the size of a large house cat, with a long snout and prehensile tail. Sometimes the Bontebok, the Cape Springbok, t… The species is not currently at risk of extinction in the wild. Its distinguishing feature is the extremely long neck and legs and the distinctive coat patterns. South America is filled with mammals from North America, but why more didn’t survive the reverse trip has been a natural history mystery. This is a list of the native wild mammal species recorded in South America. Aardvark. The tusks are used for protection and a tool for digging. Verified Purchase. Order: Eulipotyphla (shrews, hedgehogs, moles, and solenodons), Order: Perissodactyla (odd-toed ungulates), Order: Artiodactyla (even-toed ungulates and cetaceans), Infraorder: Cetacea (whales, dolphins and porpoises), Lists of Western Hemisphere mammals from north to south, This is based on the definition of Sigmodontinae that excludes, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, International Union for Conservation of Nature, Highland gerbil mouse, eastern Patagonian gerbil mouse, greater than that of North America north of Mexico, while its mustelid diversity is comparable and its mephitid and ursid diversities are lower, "Arrival and Diversification of Caviomorph Rodents and Platyrrhine Primates in South America", "Middle Eocene rodents from Peruvian Amazonia reveal the pattern and timing of caviomorph origins and biogeography", "Land Mammals and the Great American Interchange", "Chapter 1. Lions hunt in groups with its prey consisting mainly of mammals. All four species are endangered. South America also once had a great diversity of ungulates of native origin, but these dwindled after the interchange with North America, and disappeared entirely following the arrival of humans. The large ear flaps are used to regulate the body temperature. Today they are found primarily in isolated or formerly isolated continents of Gondwanan origin. The tail is long and spotted. The species does not qualify as being at high risk of extinction but is likely to do so in the future. There are six extant species of shrew opossum. An adult giraffe is 14.1-18.7 feet tall and weighs approximately 2,628 pounds. The Kruger National Park alone has well over 10 000 elephants and 20 000 buffaloes – in 1920 there were an estimated 120 elep… A Field Guide to the Mammals of Southern Africa. For a complete list of endangered species in Africa, browse the Africa endangered species list. Sequencing of collagen from fossils of one recently extinct species each of notoungulates and litopterns has indicated that these orders comprise a sister group to the perissodactyls. The manatees are the only extant afrotherians in the Americas. [1][2][3] All the remaining nonflying mammals of South America are recent arrivals, having migrated from North America via Central America during the past seven million years as part of the Great American Interchange; this invasion, which peaked around three million years ago, was made possible when the formation of the volcanic Isthmus of Panama bridged North and South America. Lions are one of the Big Five animals. All 21 extant species are found in South America, where they originated. Their bodies are covered by chestnut brown coat while the tail tuft and front faces are black. The presence of camelids in South America but not North America today is ironic, given that they have a 45-million-year-long history in the latter continent (where they originated), and only a 3-million-year history in the former. They are the mammals most fully adapted to aquatic life with a spindle-shaped nearly hairless body, protected by a thick layer of blubber, and forelimbs and tail modified to provide propulsion underwater. There are several animal species that are among the world’s tallest, fastest or even tiniest animals such as the majestic giraffe, the speedy cheetah or the tiny pygmy shrew.. Several animal species are endangered such as the African wild dogs, the oribi or the rhino which is hunted for its horn. Apart from South Africa, tsessebe is also found in Angola, Botswana, Namibia, Zimbabwe, Zambia, and Swaziland. South African grassland forb species. It is depicted on the coat of arm of Namibia where its current population is approximately 370,000. It is a large bovine with a shoulder height ranging from 3.3-5.6 feet. Extant tree sloths fall into two groups that are not closely related, and which do not form a clade; two-toed sloths are much more closely related to some extinct ground sloths than to three-toed sloths. It has 4-12 white stripes along the torso with the head darker in color than the rest of the body. Elephants are among the largest terrestrial animals in the world. The species is facing a high risk of extinction in the wild. As of May 2012, the list contains 1,331 species, 340 genera, 62 families and 15 orders. It has been listed as Vulnerable by the IUCN due to the substantial decline in its range. Caviomorph rodents and monkeys arrived as "waif dispersers" by rafting across the Atlantic from Africa in the Eocene epoch, 35 million or more years ago. The head is small and rounded and the legs are also small. Not that giraffe, hippo or whale are small … South Africa’s bushveld and savannah regions are still home to large numbers of the mammals universally associated with Africa. Opossums probably diverged from the basic South American marsupials in the late Cretaceous or early Paleocene. South America's felid diversity is also greater than that of North America north of Mexico, while its mustelid diversity is comparable and its mephitid and ursid diversities are lower. [n 1] Mammal species presumed extinct since AD 1500 (nine or ten cases) are included. South America's meager lagomorph diversity (6 species compared to 18 for North America north of Mexico) reflects their recent arrival and failure (so far) to diversify much. They have two incisors in the upper and lower jaw which grow continually and must be kept short by gnawing. The male weighs 137 kg while the female weighs 120 kg. Cape buffalo’s main predator is the lion. The lagomorphs comprise two families, Leporidae (hares and rabbits), and Ochotonidae (pikas). Superb book with first class descriptions and excellent photographs. Office: 011 27 82 207 7576. All of these went extinct following the arrival of humans. Elephants are purely herbivorous and prefer to stay near water. The list consists of those species found in the nations or overseas territories of continental South America (including their island possessions, such as the Galápagos), as well as in Trinidad and Tobago and the Falkland Islands; Panama is not included. South America is notable for its diversity of canids, having more genera than any other continent in spite of their relatively brief history there. South America's terrestrial mammals fall into three distinct groups: "old-timers", African immigrants and recent North American immigrants. Gemsboks are grazers but also browse during the dry season. It has approximately 300 species of mammals and 850 species of birds. The mammals in South Africa are quite numerous, and most of them can’t be found anywhere else in the world, which makes them extremely special. South Africa is one of the most incredible destinations worldwide for watching marine mammals. Today, its total number is decreasing due to hunting and habitat loss. Verreaux’s Eagle Owl (Giant Eagle Owl): the biggest owl in Africa. South America's 22 extant genera compares with 10 in Central America, 1 in North America north of Mexico, 52 in Australia, 28 in New Guinea and 2 in Sulawesi. Elephant. The males have prominent manes that grow around the neck, shoulder, and covers part of the head. The order Primates includes the lemurs, monkeys, and apes, with the latter category including humans. The snake is responsible for most of the snake-bite deaths in Africa owing to its wide distribution and the aggressiveness. South American marsupials are thought to be ancestral to those of Australasia.[7]. The marsupials and xenarthrans are "old-timers", their ancestors having been present on the continent since at least the very early Cenozoic Era. No reasonable doubt that the last individual has died. Rhinos are large, stocky animals commonly known for their short legs and two horns on their muzzle with the longer horn sitting at the front of the nose. Bat species account for about 20% of all mammals. Though they can resemble rodents, and were classified as a superfamily in that order until the early 20th century, they have since been considered a separate order. This is a list of the native wild mammal species recorded in South America. The Cape buffalo, also known as the African buffalo, is a subspecies of buffalo commonly found in Eastern and Southern Africa. South Africa is currently the 27th country in the world regarding amphibian species richness, and is the fifth such country in its bio-geographical territory after Madagascar, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Cameroon, and Tanzania. Numerous ground sloths, some of which reached the size of elephants, were once present in both North and South America, as well as on the Antilles. The corresponding figures are 10% and 27% for Central America, 2% and 10% for Mexico, 0.5% and 3% for North America north of Mexico, and 72% and 27% for recent endemic Caribbean rodents. In males, the horns can be as long as 40 cm and are mainly used in defending a territory and for mate attraction. White rhinos are the second largest mammals after elephants while black rhinos are relatively smaller than their relatives. South America's considerable cervid diversity belies their relatively recent arrival. Impressive in stature and … Marsupials are a collection of pouched mammals that was once more widely distributed. African Dragonflies and Damselflies Online is a collaboration between ConsEnt (Stellenbosch) and ADU (Cape Town) funded by the JRS Biodiversity Foundation. It has long horns that are about 33 inches. Cheetahs are mainly active during the day with hunting as the main activity. They have several distinctive features including the long trunk (proboscis) that is used for both breathing and grasping objects. The greater kudu has a narrow body, long legs, and a brownish gray to reddish brown coat. Please note whilst every effort is made to provide accurate identifications and information errors could occur. It has a slender body and a deep chest with the body covered by a spotted coat. This project is focussed on obtaining data with regards to the species richness and distribution of South A... Southern African Birds. A group consists of 15-30 members with the females hunting for food and the males protecting the pride. Illustrating the advantage of gaining a head start in colonizing a new land mass, sigmodontine rodents comprise 99.5% of all cricetid rodents in South America, but only 42% in Central America, 17% in Mexico and 7% in North America north of Mexico. The marsupials and xenarthrans are "old-timers", their ancestors having been present on the continent since at least the very early Cenozoic Era. The bushveld and savanna regions of South Africa are homes to large numbers of wildlife. Note/Disclaimer: This list is made possible through a database keyword search/filtering process which may not be 100% accurate. Author: Prof Rudy can der Elst ~ Oceanographic Research Institute, Durban ( Article Type: Overview) South Africa is endowed with an exceptionally rich marine environment. Despite the wide range, the antelopes are sparsely populated in some of the areas due to habitat loss and poaching. The puff adder is a venomous viper species common throughout Africa except in the Sahara Desert and rainforest region. A final, all-inclusive taxon datasheet for each They are small shrew-like marsupials confined to the Andes. Marine Life of Southern Africa. Postal Address: PO Box 141, Kestell 9860, South Africa [4], South America suffered another major loss of mammal species in the Quaternary extinction event, which started around 12,500 cal BP, at roughly the time of arrival of Paleoindians, and may have lasted up to several thousand years. Eulipotyphlans are insectivorous mammals. At least 37 genera of mammals were eliminated, including most of the megafauna. There are 17 threatened species in South Africa, including the black rhino, pangolin and giant golden mole. The ossicones are necessary for thermoregulation and also used as a combat between the males. South Africa is world famous for its flora and fauna, and widely known for the Kruger National Park, among other conservation areas. It has a black or brown coat. The two species found in the country are the white and black rhinos. [5] While South America currently has no megaherbivore species weighing more than 1000 kg, prior to this event it had a menagerie of about 25 of them (consisting of gomphotheres, camelids, ground sloths, glyptodonts, and toxodontids – 75% of these being "old-timers"), dwarfing Africa's present and recent total of 6.[6]. Elephants are among the largest terrestrial animals in the world. Besides the huge diversity of ecosystems, at least 11 130 species of marine animals and numerous species of marine plants and seaweeds have been identified. The waters surrounding Southern Africa boast 40 different kinds of marine mammal. There are about 220 noncetacean artiodactyl species, including many that are of great economic importance to humans. A horn-like structure known as ossicones. At the order level, the "old-timers" are overrepresented because of their ancient local origins, while the African immigrants are underrepresented because of their "sweepstakes" mode of dispersal. However, a number proboscid species, some of which survived until the arrival of Paleoindians, once inhabited the region. Lions are one of Africa’s apex predators with no other animals preying on them. The greater kudu bull is an antelope species commonly found in woodlands across eastern and southern Africa. The Southern Africa’s Mammals Guide is a high quality 216-page book providing all the information you need to identify mammals when visiting Southern Africa’s Wildlife and Nature Reserves. The species is facing a very high risk of extinction in the wild. They have a characteristic skull shape and dentition. The following tags are used to highlight each species' conservation status as assessed by the International Union for Conservation of Nature; those on the left are used here, those in the second column in some other articles: The IUCN status of all listed species except bats was last updated between March and June 2009; bats were updated in September 2009. Most rodents are small, although the capybara can weigh up to 45 kg (100 lb). Their closest extant relatives are the hippos, which are artiodactyls, from which cetaceans descended; cetaceans are thus also artiodactyls. They prey on birds, lizards, and mammals. Some females have a reddish coat. Popularly known as Lord Derby Eland, the giant eland antelopes are spiral … The tsessebe is a subspecies of Africa antelope and closely related to topi. The diversification of canids and felids in South America was partly a consequence of the inability of the continent's native avian and metatherian predators to compete effectively following the Great American Interchange.